It was estimated in 2015 that 2.4 billion (about 1 out of 3 people) lack access to improved sanitation facilities, and just under 1 billion continue to defecate openly. Sanitation is a human right, just like the human right to water. Lack of access to sanitation, impacts on health, dignity, and safety
- More than 8 Lakh children below the age of five die due to diarrhea each year in the developing countries – 88 percent of diarrhea is caused by poor sanitation and hygiene.
- In India, diarrhea is the third largest killer of children under five years of age - 3 Lakh children (13% of all deaths in this age-group) die every year due to diarrhea.
- India loses the equivalent of 6.4 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or Rs 2.4 Lakh Crore every year due to inadequate sanitation.
- More than 5 Crore children under-five years (48 percent of all children) in India are stunted – or suffering from chronic under-nutrition. India accounts for 33 percent of stunted children in the world. Lack of adequate food and poor water, sanitation, and hygiene are thought to be causing 50% of such stunning.
- Improved sanitation can reduce deaths due to diarrhea by 37 per cent, and hygienic practices like hand-washing can reduce the number of diarrhea cases by as much as 35%. Improved water supply can reduce diarrhea deaths by 21 per cent, and better quality water causes a 45 percent reduction in diarrhea cases.
Having to defecate in the open also infringes on human safety and dignity. This holds particularly true for women and girls in developing countries, who lose privacy and face shame having to defecate in public, or – after painfully holding their bladder and bowels all day – risk attack by waiting until night falls to relieve themselves. Women in developing countries are increasingly expressing feelings of fear of assault or rape when having to leave the house to use the toilet. Reports of attacks or harassment near or in toilet facilities, as well as near or in areas where women defecate openly, are not uncommon. The consequences of such violence against women are both physical and psychological for the victim and extend to families and communities that persist to live with gender-based inequalities and lost the economical potential of victims. In South Africa, researchers found that by increasing access to public toilets and by providing more of them, there was fewer incidents of sexual assault or gender-based violence carried out on women.
Initiatives by Gramalaya
Experimented successfully innovative models like Micro-finance for Sanitation, Child-Friendly toilets, Community Managed pay and use latrines, school health program with working experience in rural, urban, tribal and coastal regions. The school health intervention through child-to-child approach, cost effective toilet models developed at the Centre for Toilet Technology and Training established by Gramalaya, microfinance for sanitation models, IEC materials developed by Gramalaya with WaterAid, Water.org, UNICEF and Arghyam funding.
It is planned to select the Reddiyur village, Kattumannar kovil Block, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu. These people belong to Scheduled Caste (SC ), working as a labourer in the agricultural field. The Girls in the villages are using open places for defecation purpose.
Present Status of the village
Presently, the people who are using open places such as road, bushes, canal, river, agricultural areas for defecation purposes.
Beneficiaries to be reached through campaign
200 population would be benefiting out of 40 Toilets including 100 Children in the small village.
Output and Impact of the project
Due to the construction of 40 SMART toilets, the entire village would become Open Defection Free (ODF) and ensuring a clean environment and leads to improved Sanitation of the village, life standard of the people.
SMART Toilets & its cost
40 SMART toilets to be constructed with Bathroom and Incinerator facility ensuring safety, privacy and dignity of the women and children with the cost of Rs.25,000/- per SMART toilets including Administration and implementation cost of the toilet.( Total expected Amount. Rs.10 lakhs ( Rupees Ten Lakhs only )
Gramalaya team will educate the rural poor on personal hygiene particularly school going children, on the importance of consistent hand washing during a critical time, nail cutting etc., usage of toilets, by all members including men and aged people.