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Help me raise funds for implementing my innovations in dev. - story -1Renewable energy source model or the appropriate technology model i.e.  Cosmic Energy Pump Lab model with bullocks and the commercial model innovated by H C Sirohi to be used for the road side horticulture experiment to lift water from the large urban drains which would be manually run by the beneficiaries as the water for the horticulture crops will be full of organic fertilizer. This will reduce the cropping cost on irrigation.Help me raise funds for implementing my innovations in dev. - story -3Help me raise funds for implementing my innovations in dev. - story -2


About 25 odd schemes of welfare announced by the government, which include wage earning schemes also, can ensure locally an average cash flow of about Rs.8000/- per month to the family living below starvation line (BSL, my own terminology of measuring level of starvation, not only the poverty). Now, even this income, if ensured regularly, cannot break the vicious relationship between the daily wage and the daily meal. Hence, there is a need to inject an assured additional income of Rs.22000/- per month (to make it Rs.1000/- per day) to the family to pull it out from the BSL. The family needs to think about raising further income which can bring it between the bracket of BSL and BPL. Once the family crosses the Below Poverty Line (BPL) and above poverty line (APL) bracket; it can think of planning new strategies to live a normal life with minimum comforts and dare go for new and risky options of regularly, respectfully, locally earning money with the government help. Hence, the strategic options for a family living below starvation line are very limited, or almost about zero, until and unless the family is supported by external aid system initially and then simultaneously provided an additional assured income source after skill up-gradation. The role of intervention through skill up-gradation will start at a much later stage. A family living below starvation line does not understand the terminologies of development, and to make them understand these, one will have to do a hard work in making the family receptive of normal civilized world’s ideas. This process takes a long time and requires sustained and patient efforts. Then in due course, the family can be told to earn for itself, read newspapers, watch TVs, go to the training institutes for new avenues and enter in to an organised development system. Only then the family will be able to have strategic partnership with the outside world actors. But, this can only be done by making them understand to work in homogeneous groups. After a minimum gestation period, the working community should not remain as a loose group, but it should become a cohesive legal entity by forming a cooperative. Then they should concentrate on acquiring skills to increase/multiply their incomes. However, as a positive sign, the State is seeing a ray of hope through the government interventions in majority of human activities. Since, the government is playing a proactive role in reshaping the socio-economic lives of the people, so the government’s role needs to be supported by one and all. Precisely, with this aim this Institute is visualizing intervening and supporting this socio-economic move of the State. To achieve its objectives in a more realistic manner, this NGO type Institution is making its basis many projects enunciated by me in the past with my own vision and direction as a student of development, and my new philosophy expressed through the ‘Community Lead Model’. My philosophy, and the success of my projects taken up under government initiatives, had galvanized the landed and the landless to participate in the intended socio-economic change. As a retired officer now I need money for identifying BSL families by randomly going to the poorest hutments and taking their social photography and making records of their present socio-economic condition. Then forming informal groups with 20 members each to take roadside horticulture projects to make the cities beautiful as also earn money from the usufructs of the horticulture experiment. Similarly I had innovated pure bamboo tiles and other construction products like bamboo doors and windows, wall paneling etc. which need to be manufactured commercially and in course training the carpenters to upgrade skills to multiply their incomes manifold. Initially these two innovative schemes will be taken up and then it is hoped that the outcome of these initiatives will fetch many more socio-economic development activities. When I start receiving money I will start my Institute in Faridabad with an aim to work in the NCR of Greater Delhi with my staunch supporters and committed AAS group workers (who are not rich enough to donate their day's labour, so they are also paid their wages for the work they do). All donors will be invited to conduct social audit of my innovations and all will be welcomed to extend support to the mission.  


#1 (07 Jun, 2017)

Help me raise funds for implementing my innovations in dev. - story -1Renewable energy source model or the appropriate technology model i.e.  Cosmic Energy Pump Lab model with bullocks and the commercial model innovated by H C Sirohi to be used for the road side horticulture experiment to lift water from the large urban drains which would be manually run by the beneficiaries as the water for the horticulture crops will be full of organic fertilizer. This will reduce the cropping cost on irrigation.Help me raise funds for implementing my innovations in dev. - story -3Help me raise funds for implementing my innovations in dev. - story -2

#2 (07 Jun, 2017)


(Let the Community Lead)




Destitute Women (Living Below Starvation Line) for their Socio-economic & Cultural Development





“The aim of the economics would be not to create a huge engine of production, whether of the competitive or the cooperative kind, but to give to men, not only to some but to all men, each in his highest possible measure – the joy of work according to their own nature and free leisure to grow inwardly, as well as a simple, rich and beautiful life for all.”  Sri Aurobindo      

Our limited endeavour in formulating and implementing this project has been to devise ways to address the problems of those who do not have any work to do, anything beautiful to see and any facility to enjoy moments of leisure. Therefore, we have taken a direct action to explore new methodologies, which create an environment in their favour to create additional incomes and wealth, by suggesting communitization of such resources which are lying unutilized, so that they are allowed to earn their dignified livelihood to live a ‘simple, rich and beautiful life’. However, in establishing a correlation between increase in incomes, creation of wealth and achievable levels of quality of life as per Sri Aurobindo’s dictum, Dr. Amartya Sen’s arguments further complicate the issue. He argues, “Interestingly, Yajnavalkya’s wife Matreyi raises a profoundly important question when the two discuss the reach of wealth in the context of the problem and predicaments of human life, in particular what wealth can and cannot do for us. Matreyi wonders whether it could be the case that if ‘the whole earth, full of wealth’ were to belong just to her, she could achieve immortality through it. ‘No,’ responds Yajnavalkya, ‘like the life of rich people will be your life. But there is no hope of immortality by wealth.’ Matreyi remarks: What should I do with that by which I do not become immortal?” {Sen, Amartya (2005): The Argumentative Indian, London: Penguin Books, p/8.}

“Maitreyi’s rhetorical question has been repeatedly cited in Indian religious philosophy to illustrate both the nature of the human predicaments and the limitations of the material world. But there is another aspect of this exchange that has, in some ways, more immediate interest. This concerns the relation – and the distance – between income and achievement, between the commodities we can buy and the actual capabilities we can enjoy, between our economic wealth and our ability to live as we would like. Where there is connection between opulence and our ability to achieve what we value, the linkage may or may not be very close.” (ibid, p/8-9)

Here we are not challenging either of the two. Our simple concern is that without a minimum level of respectable and regular income, a normal human soul may even fail to understand and define what is good for it and what is bad. So, leaving aside the philosophical aspect of this theological debate, our immediate interest should be to find out possible means to make the poorest among the poor to earn a minimum level of such incomes, which create wealth. These incomes, at later stages, may enhance their senses to analyse and examine spiritual facets of opulence and immortality. The real predicament of such groups is that with their skinny skeletons, they do not have an access to any of the factors of production, which create incomes or wealth for a dignified living.

Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India in its Annual Report-1994-95 mentioned that ‘land is the most relevant source of living for large section of the people and the rights on land, however small in area, confer socio-economic status and dignity. The plank of land reforms is ceilings on agricultural holding. It fulfills the objective of a more equitable distribution of land resources and greater intensity of production and employment’. The Ministry’s document also claimed that it had created a bypass arrangement whereby benefits reach the lowest rungs of the social pyramid directly from the States by saving the vulnerable groups of the society from exploitation at the hands of the market forces in the new regime of economic liberalization. However, in spite of this there has been large number of vulnerable people who does not own even an inch of this national and natural resource.

In the same Report, while addressing the problem of management of lands falling in the drought prone areas, it referred to the recommendations of Dr. Hanumantha Rao Committee. This Committee prescribed solutions to the problem by stating that a harmonious management, development, and utilization of land, water, and complementary opportunities for processing and marketing of value added goods produced in such areas should be essence of the development of these areas.

Of late, the Union, as well as, the State governments has been making special efforts to upgrade the facilities and infrastructure for communities hailing from the lowest rungs by creating employment opportunities in the new emerging markets. This project supplements this attempt by providing well-structured options for exploring new opportunities of employment by managing resources like land and water to facilitate the vulnerable groups take up new development schemes. However, emergency attention is required to be given to schemes, which ameliorate the conditions of the ultra poor.

They constitute deprived communities in the Indian Society, and therefore, they enjoy special privileges protected under the Constitution of the country. But, ironically, these groups are further stratified into a further lower ladder on the basis of their socio-economic backgrounds within the community itself. Lowest in the communities ladder are known as Doms (Manual Scavengers and the groups who cremate dead bodies of human beings), Mehatars (Manual Scavengers), Musahars (who used to survive on mouse-flesh) and Flayers (who handle animal carcass, animal skins, horns etc. for their livelihood) etc. In the ST community, primitive tribes occupy the lowest place in the hierarchy. They are Birhors (who in most cases still live in tree leaves huts) and Paharias (who live on the hilltops) etc. These are some of the social groups in the Castes and Tribes in the eastern part of the country, who in spite of all developmental programmes, have been left far behind in the race of socio-economic development in the country as a whole. Because, normal implementation of developmental schemes has not succeeded to affect them positively; hence, a number of special schemes were introduced for their uplift.

Nevertheless, again, in spite of the advent of such special schemes their socio-economic conditions have been remaining appalling. Programmes like One Time Grant Scheme, Garima Scheme for the Rehabilitation of Scavengers, General Training Scheme, Training under Garima Scheme, NSFDC, National Safai Karamchari Finance & Development Corporation, National Scheduled Tribe Finance & Development Corporation, Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers, Micro Credit Finance Scheme, Land Purchase Schemes and Mahila Smridhi Yojana have failed to make any headway in ameliorating the conditions of the targeted families.

Various thinkers, having interest in this subject, have been marshalling the cause of these groups. They have recommended that some very special measures are needed to address their critical problems. Hence, in the light of the above background, it was felt necessary to chalk out special strategy for such destitute families, so that a direct approach for effective intervention to achieve an ‘equitable & accessible development’ is adopted and they are brought into the national mainstream.

Seemingly, this being almost an unachievable objective, we have to prioritize our activities. For our guidance in prioritizing activities for development, we take shelter of a statement of the first Prime Minister of the country Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru made on the floor of Lok Sabha on 16 May 1951. In his statement, he referred to some American scholar who had remarked that India did not have any problem, except the five described as under:

One             –        Land

Two            –        Water

Three          –        Children

Four            –        Cow

Five            –        Capital

{Chatterjee, NN (1989): Rashtriya Vishyon par Nehruji ke Vichar, New Delhi: Prakashan Vibhag, Soochna Aur Prasaran Mantralaya, Bharat Sarkar}

For our own convenience, we have rescheduled these as under:

One             –        Land

Two            –        Water

Three          –        Mother+child

Four            –        Livestock

Five            –        Capital

A philosophy that addresses these five components of development, and attempts to transform these problem-weaknesses into our resource-strengths, is the basis of this project. The ‘Community Lead Model’ prescribes that until and unless the community itself takes the burden to lead a programme in most cases it becomes almost impossible to achieve sustainable success. As per a Chinese saying, when we allow the community to lead a mission, not only success is ensured but, on completion of such a mission the community acquires confidence to say that they have accomplished it. Eighth Five Year Plan document recognized this while emphasising need for micro-level participatory planning observing that the government’s interference has become all pervasive, whereas the need of the time was to accept the role of the people who should be allowed to operate while the Government cooperate. But, Community Lead Model does not accept this form of limited merciful delegation to the community. Here community is defined as an informal natural set of people living in an area or concerned with a task. Participation, howsoever well-intentioned it may be, always pushes back those who participate to a secondary role. In a marriage party, relatives and friends though participate in the event whole-heartedly, but they are not the decision makers. They can volunteer their suggestion, but it is not obligatory on the part of the decision maker to consider it. Participation suggests, whereas leadership acts. Participation is evasive, whereas leadership is decisive. Community should not participate, but lead; and the government or the NGOs may participate. And, it is the community only that can establish harmony in its day-to-day and special activities. Homogeneity springs from a synchronized community action, where others may participate but not interfere.


In this project, we also have dovetailed the development of the vulnerable groups with land, water, market, and related opportunities, but in a different manner.

The first step relates to land. Details given in the foregoing Para lead one to draw conclusions as under:

Land is most important source of livelihood.

Rights on land are equally important.

Even small fraction of land is valuable.

Land confers social status.

Land confers economic status.

Land provides a dignified living.

Excess land is bad for equity, hence Land Ceiling Acts.

Land should be equitably distributed.

Equitably distributed land results in greater intensity, production & employment.

Equitable distribution of land is necessary for protecting rights and lives of those, who occupy lowest place in the social pyramid.

State is instrumental in ensuring equitable distribution of lands, particularly to those, who occupy the lowest step in the social pyramid;


Land is scarce, so this cannot be given to every citizen; hence it is also a problem.

Economic liberalization has dangers for landholders and vulnerable groups.

The State by efficiently managing land affairs can save landholders and vulnerable groups from dangers emerging out of market forces.

If harmoniously managed, developed, and then utilized, then even lands situated in drought prone areas and wastelands can be made useful.

Harmonious management of water can make such lands useful.

Harmonious management of goods processing technologies results in value addition.

Harmonious management of marketing technologies results in more profit, which in turn results in development of even drought prone areas;


But again, some more conclusions can be drawn:


Only ownership over land does not earn profits, as thousands of acres of lands are lying unutilized in many extremist affected areas.

Ownership succeeded by possession is necessary to utilize land.

Only possession over land does not earn profit, as thousands of acres of lands under the possession of absentee landlords or other rich persons are lying unutilized in rural as well as urban areas, as also lands within the boundaries of thousands of Farm Houses in the country are also left unutilized causing criminal neglect of this scarce resource.

Till date critical issues in the matter of land like ownership, possession, and utilization have not been addressed properly, this is resulting in loss of enormous quantum.

Land issues pertaining to ownership, possession and utilization need to be resolved immediately to have a peaceful co-existence of landless and landed gentries, particularly in strife-torn rural areas.

Equitable land-use philosophy under AAS Mission was supported even by extremists, which was proved by the fact that Self-help Cooperative Societies located in extremist affected areas were working uninterruptedly.

Social unrest cannot fetch any benefit even from scarce resource, if it is owned and possessed inequitably.

Equitable use of resources and accessible technologies can arrest social unrest and keep the wheel of development in motion in the right direction.

Most of the conclusions pertaining to land also apply to water.

Children are a problem, if not cared well.

Cow is a problem, if not reared well.

Capital is a problem, if not protected and generated well.

There is no problem in India (at least the ‘Other India’) if:

Land and water are equitably distributed (or allowed to be utilized equitably), consciously and harmoniously managed with accessible and appropriate technologies and the value-added products are marketed well.

Mother is treated well (mother aspires for space, which she could claim to be her with restrictions for others).

Child is cared well (child aspires for an unrestricted space with wings to fly high in the sky).

Livestock are reared well (Animal wants a free space away from the social animal, where it could live like an animal).

An aggregated outcome of a fertile piece of land used with caution, carefully conserved and used water, a well treated mother, a well cared child and a well reared cattle will, ultimately, result into CAPITAL (Human as well as material).

And, because all 5 (Land, water, mother+child, cattle and capital) are interconnected and interdependent (At least for the ‘Other India’ which lives in villages, small towns, and slums); hence this cycle, if consciously maintained, can create a society inhabited by reasonable human beings living in a liveable environment.

To accomplish (ee) so that objectives fixed under (ff) are achieved, this Pilot Project begins with those target groups, who need State’s emergency attention. This is a fact that within the socio-economic groups of people living ‘Below Poverty Line’, there are those who live ‘Below Starvation Line’ (My another model talks about ‘Four Layers Model’ depicting Voice Layer, Choice Layer, Poverty Layer & Starvation Layer in the society). Within the circumference of societal living, a long spell of scarcity has compelled powerful lobbies & groups to push the powerless to wall. Till the time the powerless was kept, or could succeed in retaining some space for him, within the boundary line of social controls, he tolerated the painful pressure, but when he found himself almost ousted from the periphery, he started reacting to every overture and gesture of the exploiters. Moreover, this reaction was not a peaceful one. This violent expression of dissatisfaction disturbed those who had been occupying unchallenged thrones inherited from their caste/class/religious ancestral heads. Such violent expressions of anger acquired, in due course, legitimacy from their brethren and co-sufferers, because these had emanated from the traditional exploitative behavioural patterns of the powerful people. Therefore, the first and foremost attempt of this project through effective and equitable interventions is to pull-in and retain such people within a newly carved out dignified space to facilitate them fulfil human life’s mission, as quoted by Sri Aurobindo.  So, this project is not an economic activity only, it encompasses all necessary aspects of human life, which in due course would be able to provide a dignified living within the social periphery to the people living Below Starvation Line, who are being pushed out of the ambit of socio-legal, religious, political & economic framework of the social structure.      

Now to explain this new term ‘Starvation Line’, we may have to fall back upon the philosophy of Rural Development Ministry, Government of India, who in the early period of its poverty alleviation programmes (in 80s and 90s), had divided target groups into two layers i.e. first being those whose annual incomes were less than Rs.3500.00, and the second layer consisted of those whose annual incomes were less than Rs.4800.00.

In one of its Concurrent Evaluations {Concurrent Evaluation ‘Third Round’ (January-December 1989)}, it was revealed that there had been a wrong selection of the targeted beneficiaries in 16% cases. In scholar’s language, it is called ‘E’-Factor (Error in selection of targeted beneficiaries). This is more dangerous than ‘F’-Factor (Failure in the delivery system). F-Factor only affects the quality of delivery of services to some extent, but E-Factor demolishes the entire fabric of a developmental scheme, because it passes on the benefits to wrong hands. If the surveyors had gone further deep, it would have proved that this share of 16% of E-Factor had belonged to those who were below Starvation Line (BSL), whose incomes were below Rs.3500.00. Furthermore, the studies had shown that in one state, only in 23.53% cases (against the national average of 17.63%) the assets were found intact, and the families had crossed the intended income limit of Rs.6400.00. Incidentally again, if the survey teams had gone further deep, it could have easily been proved that these 23.53% families must have been those, who had not been below Starvation Line (BSL) at the time of financial assistance.

Jeffrey Sachs states, “If economic development is a ladder with higher rungs representing steps up the path to economic well-being, there are roughly one billion people around the world, one sixth of humanity, who live as the Malawians do: too ill, hungry, or destitute even to get a foot on the first rung of the development ladder. These people are the “poorest of the poor”, or the “extreme poor” of the planet. They all live in developing countries (poverty does exist in rich countries, but it is not extreme poverty). Of course, not all of these one billion people are dying today, but they are all fighting for survival each day. If they are the victims of a serious drought or flood, or an episode of serious illness, or a collapse of the world market price of their cash crop (Unquote- This reminds us of farmers committing suicide in some Indian States), the result is likely to be extreme suffering and perhaps even death. Cash earnings are pennies a day” {Sachs, Jeffrey (2005): The End of Poverty, London: Penguin Books, p/18}. “But, they are not able to get the first foothold on the ladder and so cannot even begin the climb out of poverty.” (Ibid, Pp/20) “The sweatshops are the first rung on the ladder out of extreme poverty” (Ibid, Pp/11). In a way through his recipe i.e. ‘a trek to the cities’, he is suggesting migration of rural workforce to the urban slums to find a solution to step on the way to economic opportunities (Pp/12). But, “India is different” (Pp/178), “India is vast. Many parts of India, particularly in the north, are still caught in the same back-breaking rural poverty that grips Malawi and parts of Bangladesh.” (Ibid, Pp/16) More than 70% of the population of India lives in the villages, so can this magnitude of human beings with their cattle and meager belongings be put on the ‘trek to cities’ to catch hold of the first rung of the ladder of development?

While discussing about those who earn less than a penny per day, we have put them in the category of people living below starvation line (BSL), and other two groups in ‘below poverty line’ (BPL) and ‘above poverty line’ (APL) categories for our interest. If one has a glance at the family photographs of the beneficiaries of this Pilot Project, one can realize what the definition of the people living below starvation line is. A collapse of the world market price is not required to kill them; they can die even with an episode of minor illness.

But, we agree with Jeffrey when he says, “A large number of the extreme poor are caught in a poverty trap, unable on their own to escape from extreme material deprivation. They are trapped by disease, physical isolation, climate stress, environmental degradation, and by ‘extreme poverty’ itself” {Sachs, Jeffrey (2005):  p/19}. In his search to find poor, he categorises poverty in three degrees e.g. extreme (or absolute poverty), moderate poverty and relative poverty, and says that those who constitute extreme poverty even fail to ‘get a first foothold on the ladder’ of development, so they cannot even think of climbing out of poverty (ibid).

For some people, poverty may be of some interest due to its relevance to organize Seminars and Conferences. There they discuss it in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), but one who is sincerely interested in addressing the problems of families like those of this project, then he or she may not find time to meddle with such statistical juggleries or terms like ‘inward looking economy – backward looking economy-outward looking economy’, because such policy amendments can only affect people who live below poverty line or above it. BPL category families can, to some extent, absorb positive impacts of such interventions, as had happened in the Indian economy. During  the period 1996-1999 a steep fall was recorded in the poverty situation of the country and it came down to about 35% from 45%, but, unfortunately this declining trend could not be perceived between the period from 1999 to 2001. During this period the fall was only from 35% to 34% (ibid, p/182). We attribute it to the fact that in the initial years of the economic modernization, BPL segments of various societies got benefits, because they were able to absorb the positive happenings affecting the urban and semi-urban markets in the country.

Those who have the capacity to encash their skills, stocks or possessions can become little shareholders of upward trends (In Jefferey’s terminology, who succeed in getting the first foothold on the ladder of development), but those who fail to even see the ladder or reach it (people belonging to BSL) cannot get any benefit out of such successes of the markets. This has also happened in the green revolution period in early seventies. Achieving of higher levels of capacity building in a society takes it to higher economic levels by increasing the size of the cake; or as Thomas L. Friedman states, “the economic historians have demonstrated in a variety of research (see particularly the work of Harvard economists Claudia Goldin and Larry Cartz), both technology and trade are making the pie bigger, but they are also shifting the shares of that pie away from low-skilled labour to high-skilled labour. {Friedman, Thomas L. (2006): The World is Flat, London: Penguin Books, pp/387}. As American society produced more higher-skilled people by making high school mandatory, it empowered more people to get a bigger slice of the bigger, more complex economic pie (ibid). To achieve further higher skills, the American society has been thinking to ensure tertiary level of education compulsory, which in the words of Friedman, will ensure, production of more people with the skills to claim higher-value-added work in the new niche that require more pattern recognition, synthesizing, and complex problem solving, beside shrinking the pool of people looking for lower-skilled work, from road maintenance to home repair to starbuck baristas (ibid).

So, those who have low-skill or no-skill may not see any increase in their share of pie, even if the size is increased. That was the reason that in spite of a steep increase in the growth rate of GDP per Capita and PPP during the period 1999 to 2001 {when the unskilled, semiskilled and skilled population living below poverty line (but above Starvation Line) had availed of their share of employment almost to a saturation level), the poverty level in India remained almost the same {see Figure-2, Sachs, Jeffrey (2005): The End of Poverty, London: Penguin Books, p/182}. And also this ‘Stagnant Poverty’ remained unaffected, because the economists have always ignored the existence of about 30% population in India who live below starvation line. They have always been recommending doubling of per capita income, literacy, education, health, and basic infrastructure goals making Japan, Korea, and China as their role models (ibid). Economists like Jeffrey Sachs and Nirupam Bajpai have been suggesting to the Indian government to achieve an average annual growth rate of 7 percent to compete with economies of the above noted nations, but the fact remains that even after achieving an 8% growth rate the then Indian Prime Minister was not satisfied with that. In one of his speeches he had declared that with a growth rate of less than 2% in agriculture we were facing a grave crisis in the agriculture sector and a situation of disaster in rural India.

Therefore, any achievement on the front of development should avoid a lop-sided action to have an equitable and sustainable impact of growth rate, which avoids further creation of gaps between the people living BPL and the BSL. Targeting of goals simply on growth rate or per capita income or purchasing power will lose sight of those who require very special attention of planners and the implementers of schemes. The impact of poverty alleviation programmes should be judged from this angle. If we go back to the above said Concurrent Evaluation Report of the Ministry of Rural Development, this attributed the reasons for failure of IRDP to the following factors:

There was an asset-loss in more than 82% cases.

Supply of unproductive assets to the concerned families.

Lack of skill and ability in the asset holders to make use of the asset.

Lack of ready & remunerative markets.

Lack of sufficient dose of finance supported by working capital to make the asset useful in generating incremental incomes.

Distribution of assets to Non-Target families.

In general, the assets could not generate incremental incomes in 26% cases (Most of the cases must have been from the starving groups). While identifying the ‘Areas of Concern’ the evaluation report stated that beside other reasons, the lack of infrastructure to the beneficiary families was also one of the major causes. It stated, “….The input facility was available in 41% cases in Primary Sector, 53% cases in Secondary Sector and 46% cases in Tertiary Sector, the marketing facility was available in 42% cases in Tertiary Sector.” The Report summed up its findings by saying that it was a very low rate of success.

Later at the end of the last millennium, the Government of India replaced IRDP with Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY), probably to plug the holes in the earlier poverty alleviation strategy.

This new programme recognized the hidden potential of the rural poor, and conceded to state that they had competencies and could become successful producers of valuable goods and services provided they were given the ‘right support’. This Pilot Project hinges on the idea to identify this ‘right support’ through a ‘holistic programme of micro-enterprises covering all aspects of self-employment, viz. organisation of the rural poor into Self-help Cooperative Societies and their capacity building, planning of activity clusters, infrastructure build-up, technology, credit (?) and marketing. Unfortunately, the officers in general have failed to understand these ‘terminologies’ of the SGSY and EGS guidelines used by the Government of India. Some may say that this project philosophy is against the rules and provisions of developmental schemes meant for the poorest among the poor under SGSY, EGS and other welfare programmes.

The question mark above made against ‘credit’ indicates that smooth inflow of institutional credit to families belonging to BSL is not within the ‘customary rights’ of these classes, and thus has not been provided in this project. They have always been (and even now after 40 years of nationalization of banks) treated as persona non grata at the doorsteps of financial institutions. That is why the project members found it difficult to get their individual accounts opened with the banks; even the concerned bank officer had no hesitation in announcing publicly that he would not open their accounts. Experts say that poverty alleviation schemes put additional burden on banks, which may strain their resources. The SGSY guidelines also recognize the ‘criticality of credit component’ in establishing new micro-enterprises in the rural areas by the beneficiaries, and have recommended for ‘multiple credit rather than a one-time credit ‘injection’.

In one of the GOI Workshops (July-August 1991), the Project Directors of DRDAs had arrived at a consensus to accept that ‘subsidy’ was the main guiding force in the implementation of IRDP. But, experience has also shown that subsidies also misguide a programme, and institutional credit to the vulnerable groups is a mirage defying Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s gospel of “Equality of Consideration” {Ben, S. I. & Peters R. S. (1959): Social Principles and the Democratic State, p/110}. Hence, efforts have been made to reduce the importance of subsidy and eliminate the compulsion of dependence on banks in this project; and stress has been given on ‘skill development through well-designed field training to meet the needs of the identified activity’, and that too on the plots to be earmarked to the Self-help Cooperative Societies.

The wage employment and infrastructure development objectives of the Government of India have been:

Primary objective:

Generation of additional gainful employment for the unemployed and underemployed, men and women in rural areas.

Secondary objective:

Creation of sustained employment by strengthening the rural economic infrastructure.

Creating community and social assets.

Creating assets in favour of the rural poor for their direct and continuing benefits.

Positive impact on wage levels.

Overall improvement in the quality of life in rural area.

Therefore, wage-employment has been dovetailed with training, so that while they learn the trade, they earn their wages also, and at the same time fulfil the desired goals and objectives of wage-employment programmes. The economists have termed wage employment programmes as ‘Safety Net Programmes’, but in this project to be implemented, the wage employment has been transformed into a major sustainable self-employment generating engine, which besides creating assets favourable to poor is also achieving the above desired objectives. This Pilot Project, in spite of being in the urban area, will successfully discharge its social responsibilities by functioning as a ‘Demonstration Plot’ for training other rural cooperative societies also.

In addition to the above, the standards prescribed for SGSY are also being carefully applied, which attach weightage to various features of the groups e.g. homogeneity of the groups, number of members in the group etc. The project fulfills all necessary parameters fixed for evaluation of Self-help Group also. The pilot project site lies in an urban area, but the beneficiaries are those who had migrated from rural areas, and have qualities or drawbacks similar to those living in the roofless houses in the poor habitats of villages. Their living conditions can well be defined by referring to the quote of Sachs, “They are chronically hungry, unable to access health care, lack the amenities of safe drinking water and sanitation, cannot afford education for some or all of the children, and perhaps lack rudimentary shelter-a roof to keep the rain out of the hut, a chimney to remove the smoke from the cook stove – and basic articles of clothing, such as shoes. {Sachs, Jeffrey (2005): The End of Poverty, London: Penguin Books, Pp/20}.

The project proposes an objective of ‘Community Leadership’ to be achieved, where the community takes the lead to fulfill its aims of ‘Community Self-Reliance’ by adopting innovative occupations that they could do with ease. They will be given an on the spot ‘Know-how’ training supplemented by a 6 months ‘Do-how’ Course. In the Economic Census 1990 (All India Report, CSO, Deptt. of Statistics, GOI, New Delhi) CSO has identified non-agricultural activities of the workers of India, which include mining & quarrying, manufacturing, electricity, gas, water, construction, wholesale trade, retail trade, hotel & restaurants, transport, storage & ware-housing, communication, finance, insurances, real estate & business services, community, social & personal services and some unspecified others.

The professional competence of target group of this project does not fit in to any of the above-narrated set of activities, thus leading to a constraint of opportunities. Agriculture, farm, & non-farm activities are the only avenues available to them, and being located in the urban area, they cannot opt for traditional agricultural practices. They also do not own land or even have any access to any of the factors of production except their own bodies, which is diseased by malnutrition, lack of basic amenities and their rugged lives. They live on their daily wages, which again depends on what they are able to retrieve from the community dustbins. Therefore, it was felt necessary to find new ways for their dignified, local, gainful, assured, and regular employment. Trades like raising of nursery, fisheries, poultry, and duck rearing have been selected for their primary and supplementary occupations.

Drucker states that every society is a multi-institutional society rather than business society, where business enterprise is only one of the institutions of modern society {Drucker, Peter F. (1989): Management, Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices, Ahmedabad: Allied Publishers Private Limited, pp/131}. While referring to the American college course he suggests that instead of calling the course as “Business and Government” this should be called as “Business, Government and Many Others” to eliminate the anachronism  (ibid). To draw a better hypothesis we borrow this word “Many Others” for our stakeholders of this project. These “Many Others” will be trained to adopt innovative ideas to earn a respectable livelihood to cross poverty line. But, introducing them to these new trades, a minimum possible dislocation has been effected. And, very importantly this project does not recommend major dislocations either of worksites or of habitats. Its replicas in rural areas have simply attempted to create employment opportunities in the vicinity of their own houses, because shifting of population as suggested by Sachs is neither advisable nor feasible in large countries like India, or even small countries with sizeable populations. While discussing the changing economic scenario of the workers in Bangladesh, particularly the women workers, Sachs states, “Had they (and their forefathers of the 1970s and 1980s) stayed in the villages, they would have been forced in to a marriage arranged by their fathers, and by seventeen or eighteen, forced to conceive a child. Their trek to the cities to take jobs has given these young women a chance for personal liberation of unprecedented dimension and opportunity.” {Sachs, Jeffrey (2005): The End of Poverty, London: Penguin Books, Pp/12} But, simultaneously he himself gives the pathetic details of hardship they are undergoing to enjoy this ‘unprecedented dimension of opportunities’. He admits it while saying, “The women often walk two hours each morning in long quiet files to get to work. Arriving at seven or seven-thirty, they may be in their seats for most of the following twelve hours. They often work with almost no break at all or perhaps a very short lunch break, with little chance to go to the lavatory.” (ibid, Pp/11) Even after referring to such inhumane conditions suffered by these workers, this seems ridiculous that a person, hailing from a community enjoying highest levels of leisure in the world, is recommending this solution by arriving at a conclusion that in spite of these hardships, “this life is a step on the way to economic opportunity that was unimaginable in the countryside in generations past.” (ibid, Pp/12) He calls this development as a step in the right direction and states, “These young women already have a foothold in the modern economy that is a critical, measurable step up from the villages of Malawi (and more relevant for the women, step up from the villages of Bangladesh where most of them were born). The sweatshops are the first rung on the ladder out of extreme poverty. They give lie to the Kissinger state department’s forecast that Bangladesh is condemned to extreme poverty.” (ibid, Pp/11) But, we fail to understand his logic that shifting of population from villages ensures access to the ‘first rung of the ladder of development’. Bangladesh had, in the past, been a part of India, and as per Sachs, “India is different, (ibid, Pp/178) India is vast”. (ibid, Pp/16) One should not forget that Bangladesh has also inherited the same socio-economic and religious culture. In India, where more than 80% of the population resides in rural areas, how can one even think of shifting this sea of humanity to urban areas?

Under the pressure of external financial agencies, chartered economists have been directing policies in the third world countries, without knowing facts about a country targeted for development. Such prescriptions have failed, because economists responsible for recommending such prescriptions have not even been able to diagnose the real malady. Merely on the basis of a few hours study of complicated societies like that of India, conclusions have been drawn by them. One can only understand the Indian poverty, or for that matter status of poverty in any given society, only after tasting the real life experience of a poor. This is necessary, because without knowing the life of a poor person without hope, one cannot feel the touch, extent of pain and agony, which he or she has to face. Only the wearer knows where the shoe pinches. A poor person needs a proper diagnosis, and only then any prescription should be prescribed, because we have various types of poverty in the world, viz.

Resultant Poverty (Poverty results by a variety of reasons like slavery, caste, clan, or tribe.)

Inherent Poverty (Poverty is inbuilt in the entire existence of such groups like Musahars etc.).

Regional Poverty (The best example of this kind of poverty is BIMARU states of India).

Religious Poverty (Where poverty is caused due to religious taboos and controls etc.).

Customary Poverty (Where to live in poverty is a custom, and the society refuses to accept and adopt changes for betterment, e.g. indoctrinated population of dogmatic societies).

Technical Poverty (Lack of intentions and initiatives to adopt technological advancements causes this type of poverty).

Legal Poverty (Lack of legal provisions or lack of will to implement progressive welfare and economic policies results in this type of poverty).

In the above categories of poverty, two symptoms are common in every society, and that is Starvation Line & Stagnant Poverty. Similarly, Inherent Poverty cannot be addressed even by shifting the population to urban areas, as has been the case of the beneficiaries of this Pilot Project. The Musahar communities remained unchanged even after occupying a place 100 yards away from the centre of power in the district headquarter. But, Regional Poverty can be addressed by shifting the population to better endowed areas. Hence, without having a deep knowledge of the problem, only vague prescriptions can be given. Sachs states, “The agenda is broad and bold, as it has been for two centuries, but many of its sweetest fruits are just within our reach. The democratic revolution unleashed during the Enlightenment now covers more than half the world’s population.” (Ibid, Pp/352) And, thus he suggests that with this Enlightenment, ‘despite human irrationality and passions, human reason can still be harnessed- through science, non-violent action, and historical reflection-’ we can ‘solve basic problems of social organisation and improve human welfare’ (Ibid, Pp/353). This, to us, seems to be a wishful thinking, for the Musahars had been there for more than 60 years of democratic independence, and as per Sachs again, ‘democracies are bound to be fragile where the country is impoverished, incomes are around 50 cents per person per day, or around $180 per person per year, or where the stress of mass disease, famine, and climate shock are pervasive’ (Ibid, Pp/9). And, that is why we need special approaches, like the one we are proposing here in the project to deal with the fragility of democracy and to redefine the word ‘Enlightenment’.

Under this Mission, the first and foremost issue is land, whose ownership lies with the government, which in the case of business and governmental activities compromises ownership in the name of economic activity. The government has relegated ownership to joint or private entities either to privatize or to opt for public-private partnership. While doing so there have been strong clientele supporting the new economic regime, who favoured privatization of various precious public monuments in the name of disinvestments. None of these disinvestors has come forward to show this magnanimity to compromise with ownership of government properties in favour of these “many others”. They are the real ‘load-bearers’ {Drucker, Peter F. (1989): Management, Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices, Ahmedabad: Allied Publishers Private Limited, pp/132} in the socio-economic structure of this country, which still has an agriculture economy. Even if their load-bearing role is challenged, the decision-makers also have their national tasks of a Democratic Welfare State to perform towards those who also constitute the populace of this country. While analysing the role of individuals in an organisation, Drucker states, “All one can say is that everybody’s contribution is, in theory, indispensable, although not everybody’s contribution enters into every single product or performance, nor is everybody’s contribution in any way equal in importance, skill or difficulty. An authority is, therefore, needed which divides the revenue available among the members. The institution itself, whether business enterprise or hospital, is necessarily a redistributive system (ibid, pp/193). This applies to the role of a States’ organisation too.

The State is the guardian of the people and has the prime duty to perform and manage fairly and equitably its “redistributive” duties towards those “many others” also, who cannot survive without external support. And, as has been said in the foregoing Para, their livelihood is to be ensured, which could not be done, because, like the Americans, the government in India failed to make secondary education mandatory for its citizens, which probably could have ensured the 30% “many others” a bigger share in the pie, which has got fattened by the introduction of fast growing liberalized economic resolutions. Which could also have enhanced their skills to enable them earn higher-value-added incomes locally, regularly and respectably. Therefore, they have failed to cross the threshold of their primitive bondage. This bondage of theirs has remained mandatory for them since independence. Hence, in the new culture of ‘Good Governance’, ownership issues also need to be compromised in favour of “Many Others” to fulfil the democratic aims of redistributive duties and ensuring socio-economic justice in spite of it being dominated by “Business” and “Government.”

The environment of codified possessive arrogance of “Businesses and Governments” also protects them with severe enactments, hence the ‘many others’ face innumerable difficulties to carve out a comfortable space (space to manoeuvre) for them. In such situations, who has the time to spare for evolving techniques to design patternized methodologies to empower the poor attain capabilities for resolving complexities of persistent poverty? Who will make an inventory of their problems, which need to be solved with every dawn, day, dusk and the belligerent night in between? With the GDP going up, they remain unattended. Who will carry out innovations, new concepts, and implement constructive ideas for them to cope with the pace of every increase in GDP?

Until and unless they are able to articulate their needs well, the modern economic growth will work as a dangerous weapon against them, which attacks them with every move. They fail to reap the incentives of growth, but constantly get hurt with its atrocious aggressions. Growth should be there, but with a human face. So, they need to be protected. Because their protection will ultimately protect “Businesses” and “Governments,” who are not safe even in the World Trade Centres and Pentagons; as also Good Governance is supposed to protect everyone.

The ownership of intellectual property rights is protected so jealously. Accusations have been made that this is also working against the farmers and the poor people, who cannot guard against the fast changing tricks of the trade. India lacks in the field of innovations (Those who attempt to innovate are made targets by those who believe in the theory of ‘Status Quo’.) and has been depending upon foreign innovators and inventors (Who innovate and invent for their own societies keeping in view their own requirements, and which normally does not fit in to backward societies like that of India.), whose obligations cannot be met by the farmers and the petty workmen or the unskilled labourers. Friedman says, “Some believe the best way to provide incentives for innovation is by fiercely protecting the inventor’s proprietary interest. Others argue that we should open the doors and give full access to intellectual assets. I believe we need a new path forward, an approach that offers a balance of those two extremes. We must protect the interests of individuals and companies that create truly new, novel, and useful inventions. But at the same time, we need to protect the interests of innovative communities, creative eco-systems – groups that are not incorporated or chartered but that nonetheless are engaged in genuine – and genuinely important – innovation. We need expanded notions of ownership, for a post-industrial world.” {Friedman, Thomas L. (2006): The World is Flat, London: Penguin Books, pp/255}. So, here lies the crux of the problem.

There should be a balance in the concept of ownership of natural resources, and there should be an expanded notion of ownership, at least in the matters of land and water. This is in the interest of the society to protect these two vital resources, but is there any institutionalized system which can provide a security cover to both of these precious scarce and limited assets? The answer is no. The project provides an innovative solution, and suggests creating a community cover to protect, use, conserve, maintain, and manage these resources. The main strategy is based on “Communitizing the unutilised, idle, or waste public resources by integrating the human resources with them. And to make these two resources most useful, we need to introduce latest and cost-effective techniques and innovations, even if these are available with the foreign innovators or scientists.

The project also suggests restoration of natural resources by carrying out improvements necessary for a particular resource, which is labour-intensive, generates wage employment, provides flowers, green vegetables, fuel & fodder along with a green vegetative cover that stops land erosion by wind, water and human catastrophe. Water conservation and scientific utilization of water will also ensure an increase in water table in and around the project site, besides an incremental regular income and intake of free nutritional home-food for the family members. The project site is also providing opportunities for research to develop ideas about introduction of appropriate low-cost technologies, which increase productivity of wastelands in sustainable manner. These are also the objectives of the Ministry of Rural Development (Department of Land Resources), GOI, New Delhi. The positive impact further adds to the common value of the site and the vicinity, and in due course it turns into a tourist attraction site.

During the Fourth Five Year Plan period, it was said that planning at the State and national levels ran the risk of intra-district imbalances and aggregation in production missing the locations. To counter this deficiency in planning, it was proposed to introduce a scientifically developed plan system to eliminate the inherent danger of committing errors in sectoral planning at the district level. The National Institute for Rural Development, Hyderabad in its publication “Block Plan in the District Framework” (1980) also suggested some new recipe to eliminate chances of such problems. It said, “The primary needs of our rural areas are many. Apart from facilities like health and education, the recent growth in agriculture has created demand for efficient distribution of agricultural inputs, marketing and processing facilities. The concept of agriculture has now encompassed many non-farm activities allied to agriculture, often subsidiary, but sometimes sizeable such as dairy, piggery and poultry. Along with strengthening the agriculture sector, a planned strategy for decentralizing industrial efforts in the rural areas has also become imperative. Land Reforms and intensive agriculture will, to some extent, open avenues for greater employment; but there will still be a large number for whom non-agriculture employment will have to be provided in order to stem the exodus of rural unemployment to the towns and cities in search of work.”

This project, though attempts to select a small area of operation for micro-level development, yet it opens avenues for creation of new jobs in agriculture and allied services by having a well-designed strategy to explore full employment potential in virgin areas. The development of unutilized lands for a dignified regular and gainful employment is like that of opening a new industrial unit in the rural area. The initial activity identified for the project beneficiaries leads to a new activity and that again to a newer activity. This self-generating chain in turn is supposed to introduce an occupational hierarchy at various levels viz. provision of new local raw materials like herbal medicines, bamboos, flowers etc., opening of new markets, and introduction of new products, provision of processing opportunities, transport and higher skills for entering into new and value-added operations in rural areas.

Similarly, the micro nature of this project apparently may show inability of replication at macro levels, but in the backdrop of failing sectoral planning, and the project’s internal qualities of adaptability, such micro projects have a wider ramification to address problems in areas suffering from abject poverty and hapless situations. These inherent qualities include local understanding, appropriate technologies & trades, welfare aspects, efficient allocation of capital (including the human capital), resources and capability to perceive and predict changes and adept itself as per the need. The project empowers the beneficiaries in inventing their own local designs to address local or external issues and threats and avail of emerging opportunities without outside assistance {Also see Sachdeva, Amit (2000): Micro-economic Theory and Applications-I, NOIDA, Mayur Paperbacks}.

The structure of the project philosophy is such that it covers major issues concerning other help-seeking actors playing in the rural economic field like rural artisans, small and marginal farmers and the local traders. These stakeholders, right from the beginning of the project, become partners and start sharing positive outcomes of the project. The project beneficiaries, who had never been users of their products in the past, due to low incomes and different nature of their jobs, with the advent of such projects, immediately become buyers of their goods e.g., agriculture implements etc.

Secondly, the local farmers directly share the rising incomes of the beneficiaries. The increased buying capacities invite additional expenditures in daily consumables in increased quantities. Thus, the profit sharing does not stop at the doorsteps of the beneficiaries. Various agencies having interest in the economy share the benefits. Therefore, the initiation of the project functions as an igniting catalyst to shake the stillness of the local economy as a whole, where all reap their share of the crop equitably. This community action then silences the violence-ridden volatile regions also by creating examples of success. The initial feedback from such projects replicated gave positive signals. The block agencies, while replicating their projects in new areas, did not face any major problem, because the pilot project was not an outcome of an ‘inadvertent action’, but it was based on a well thought out philosophy and strategy. However, its fabric and framework expects higher levels of commitment, innovation, understanding of poverty alleviation designs and greater field knowledge to get it tailored as per varying local needs. Moreover, in the process of implementation, such economic activities transform into a socio-economic and cultural movement encompassing the demographic construction of the rural society.

While analyzing reasons for poverty and the failure of industrialization, people say that ‘piecemeal interventions in establishing local industries failed, firstly the local industries were not organically incorporated in to the national economy; and secondly and thirdly their failure to assimilate and identify themselves with the rural socio-economic reality, which further accentuated the rural urban divide. {Jha, Ramanand, and Siddiqui, Nasrin (2000): Towards People-friendly Cities, Mumbai, UNICEF p/29}.

Our concern here is simply to say that large industrial units even based on ‘local rural raw material or labour’ are not expected in the near future in rural areas to create regular employment avenues in the organized sector. There is a need to organize the unorganized rural labour sector by devising local solutions and without hoping for large external or foreign investments in rural industries.

Secondly, even if it happens, people below starvation line will remain unaffected by any such positive happening. Because, studies show that it is not necessary that investments made in rural (or even in the urban) areas will certainly benefit families living below starvation line. The advent of software industries or mobile phone units of various companies have not left any positive dynamic impact on such groups, but negatively their meagre earnings are being siphoned out through monthly bills of mobile phones and internet.

Therefore, the economy related to the poor people, which is plagued by inertia, needs to be made vibrant. The structural adjustments made in the country remained limited to fulfil the requirements of the international market demands. These changes or the thoughts to carry out changes got restricted up to those who ‘deserved’ warm ‘Red Carpet Welcome’ or ‘Golden Keys’, and failed to appreciate their necessity to be extended to the toiling farmers working in their fields and the hungry fragile rural artisans sulking in their dingy houses-cum-workshops. Though a serious thinking in policy changes was also required to address the on-farm and non-farm activities, yet it remained focussed only on new international varieties of crops, slashing down the subsidies, export of agricultural produce and top level farmers meets etc., whereas the first and foremost demand was to attach priority to land and water issues which form basis of the rural economy.

These issues also required structural adjustments for improving management of agriculture and the non-farm activities. For example, cooperatives remained engrossed with the economic and legal documents only. No importance was attached to the issues pertaining to ownership, possession, and utilization of land and water, which also required structural adjustment. But, this could have been done only by sitting in the fields of the farmers and the clusters of rural artisans.

Schemes like ‘Supply of Improved Tools to Rural Artisans’ got merged with SGSY losing its importance which was required to be attached to this. The failure of National Small Industries Corporation, Government of India to supply improved and quality tools gave a death blow to this ambitious scheme. This happened, because the manufacturing and supply of such tools should have been dovetailed with other welfare schemes meant for the rural artisans. Integrated and well-orchestrated approaches for their socio-economic uplift were required to be taken up as supplementary programmes for their skill up-gradation supported by provision of land for workshops and credit routed through institutions like NCDC, NSFDC, and TRIFED by minimizing the role of commercial banks, which incidentally lacked in the strategy. A well thought out road map for marketing of their goods should have based on local utilization of their products. This was also possible by integrating supply of their products to rural development or other government schemes. A village school building or Indira Awaas is fitted with doors, windows and other accessories bought and transported from urban areas, and the village carpenter and blacksmith is forced to work as menial labour either in the fields of big farmers or government sponsored schemes in distress. Such linkages require a policy prescription to amend relevant rules by making it mandatory to use locally manufactures items in village schemes and other government programmes.

The basic lacunae in the existing strategy can be attributed to issues concerning institutionalization of farm and non-farm activities in the rural areas. A half-hearted approach to develop local markets will not serve the purpose. Policies like KVK do not serve the desired purpose. So to make the rurban economy vibrant, structural changes are needed in the basic framework of rural activities.

To expand the scope of options available to us, we have to turn back to the     5-Component Strategy of land, water, mother+child, livestock, and capital.

We can think over to have models like the one proposed as under:

                                                      SWARAJYA KENDRA

(An institutionalized approach for composite development of rural India)


KRISHI PRAANGAN (AGRICULTURE CAMPUS): This will have provision for modern farming training centre, agriculture implements store, sale centre for agricultural produce, seed bank, fertilizer store, plant-protection training centre with pesticide and medicine store, Cold Store and Fisheries Tank, a room for office etc. This will be a hub centre for the activities of the farmer’s cooperative societies, who after forming a Federation of Farmers Cooperative Societies will manage the day-to-day affairs of seed production, farming techniques, food processing, packaging, marketing of branded items and coordination of other allied activities. The farmer’s cooperative is proposed to be comprised of 20 such farmers who have contiguous lands. In general the farmers’ cooperatives do not opt for communitizing their land holdings; hence the cooperative action does not percolate to their plots of land. In the proposed pattern their ownership will remain intact, but the possession will dissolve in the cooperative society. Then, utilization of such one chunk of land will function as a cooperative institution managed with highest level of technological innovations to earn maximum profit out of it. Complete details of this strategy will be available in the report on Pilot Project for Marginal & Small Farmers Cooperative Society under the Mission.

JAG JANANI BHAWAN (MOTHER’S CAMPUS): This will have Mahila Mandal Office also housing the office of the Federation of Women Cooperative Societies, a Bal Bhawan, a Common room, a kitchen, a toilet for women, Immunization Centre, Filtered Water, overhead water tank, Anganbari Kendra, a Biogas Plant, a fisheries tank and nursery of exotic flowers and vegetable, and saplings meant for Angan Mein Van scheme.


PASHUDHAN PRANGAN (LIVESTOCK CAMPUS): This will accommodate Common Cattle Sheds, safe drinking water for cattle, filtered water for cattle owners and workers, office of the Federation of Livestock Cooperative Societies, a Community Fodder Bank, Community Fodder Cutting Machines, Stockman’s Office, Crate for Artificial Insemination Centre and Veterinary Centre, Milk Collection Centre, Concentrated Fodder Bank for Stall Feeding, Rest Shed for the workers, Fisheries Tank, Fodder Nursery and a small office room for the maintenance of the campus etc.


GRAMODYOG  PRANGAN (VILLAGE INDUSTRIES CAMPUS): This will have the office of the Federation of Rural Artisans Cooperative Societies, Common Work Sheds for carpenters, blacksmit

#3 (07 Jun, 2017)





















A simple grass




Just use bamboo to replace your needs of;

  • floor tiles by replacing ceramic or brick tiles, stone chips, marble, cement mortar and scarce resource of wood, and using ‘SIROHI BAMBOO FLOOR TILES’;
  • false roofing by replacing Plaster of Paris or wooden or ply sheets, and using ‘SIROHI BAMBOO FALSE CEILING  SHEETS’;
  • wall plasters by replacing cement mortar, wooden sheets or ply boards, and using ‘SIROHI BAMBOO WALL PANELS;
  • doors by replacing scarce wood or metal, and using ‘SIROHI BAMBOO DOORS’
  • windows by replacing scarce wood or metal, and using ‘SIROHI BAMBOO WINDOWS’
  • internal walls by replacing cement mortar, wooden or aluminum sheets and ply boards, and using ‘EARTHQUAKE-FREE SIROHI BAMBOO WALLS;
  • interiors by replacing scarce wood/metallic sheets, and using ‘SIROHI BAMBOO ART’
  • domestic items by replacing metallic items and using ‘SIROHI BAMBOO CRAFTS’




To preserve environment, conserve the green cover, maintain the ecological balance, protect the buildings from heat-cold & earthquakes, and to provide unlimited employment opportunities.

New and imaginative techniques have been invented by Mr. Hem Chand Sirohi, an officer of the Indian Administrative Service and working in the state of Bihar for the last 30 years. He has been experimenting innovative methods to devise new ways of life-styles. He has also been experimenting to bring out appropriate options for making the human living match with the laws of nature. He has been propagating use of natural energy, which is replenishable & renewable and cannot be consumed by just utilizing once. His experiments provide a range of new options of choices. These expand the arena of need based fulfillmentHelp me raise funds for implementing my innovations in dev. - story -6 within a rainbow of new commodities. They make living comfortable without depending much on the consumables which are produced or manufactured by compromising natural resources, environment, ecology and the living conditions. Mr. Sirohi has now made it possible to manufacture tiles, sheets, walls, items of interior decoration, furniture, and a series of other articles made with bamboo as the main raw material.

He applies a simple technique of making bamboo strips, joining these with bamboo nails and then using these bamboo sheets for various purposes.

The basic difference in Sirohi’s techniques is to use bamboo not in its crude form, but to use it as a sophisticated and decorated raw material. The conventional methods of use of bamboo have been replaced by new and innovative techniques.

These techniques will now make it possible to continuously use bamboo as the main input for a dignified and comfortable living, and simultaneously ensuring the supply-line of this natural raw material by inculcating in the farmers a progressive habits of growing bamboo as a main crop.

The National Bamboo Mission’s (NBM’s) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India while delineating its Mission Statement has targeted objectives of ‘motivating communities, NGOs, SHGs, farmers and entrepreneurs to provide an interactive coupling between technology, economy, environment and society for speedy development of Bamboo sector.’ The NBM has been making efforts to motivate the above said partners in its mission to initially plant bamboo on commercial basis to supply quality raw material and to build up a sustainable base for production of value added processed bamboo products for domestic and export markets with a strong emphasis on cleaner and user-friendly technology and quality. The NBM hopes to enable the production, supply and consumption chain, especially to realize environment friendly products and marketing network and to ensure adequate availability of quality bamboo products for the consumers at economic prices and to promote sustainable development, employment and poverty alleviation, launching of a Mission on Bamboo was of utmost importance, especially with emphasize on commercial plantation.

Mr. Sirohi’s innovations cover almost all the ingredients of this Mission Statement of the Government of India; and furthermore concretize an action plan to achieve these objectives. His innovations directly address the need of commercialization of bamboo on large scale, plantation of bamboo as a main crop in favourable zones, training to the farmers, training to the carpenters and the SHGs and entrepreneurs by establishing locally the units for the value addition of bamboo and creating new products which will fetch remunerHelp me raise funds for implementing my innovations in dev. - story -5able prices to all these actors.

Various staged of Sirohi’s innovations are:

  • Training to the carpenters, SHGs and the unemployed youth for gainful and assured employment.
  • Establishing units for manufacturing of the items stated above.
  • Tying up the raw material with the farmers without intermediaries.
  • Cultivating bamboo as the main crop as also as an inter-cropping species.
  • Marketing the value added products to the new clientele e.g. the builders and the urban consumers of traditional wood and timber.
  • Carrying out research and development operations locally to achieve durability of the raw material and the products with the help of the local rural artisans, SHGs, farmers and the intending entrepreneurs.
  • Bringing out new designs for expanding the consumer market and simultaneously exploring foreign markets.
  • Creating new consumers in rural India by motivating them avoid traditional and conventional construction materials, and replace these with the bamboo products to meet the space needs of the family in the dwelling by using economically viable and locally available items.

#4 (03 Jun, 2017)

Some of the photos of the bamboo tiles, doors etc. innovated by H C Sirohi.Help me raise funds for implementing my innovations in dev. - story -4Help me raise funds for implementing my innovations in dev. - story -5Help me raise funds for implementing my innovations in dev. - story -6Help me raise funds for implementing my innovations in dev. - story -7

#5 (03 Jun, 2017)

Help me raise funds for implementing my innovations in dev. - story -1Help me raise funds for implementing my innovations in dev. - story -2Help me raise funds for implementing my innovations in dev. - story -3I am a retired government officer having been in the executive and development side of the government for about a period of 36 years. I used to innovate schemes but due to frequent transfers these used to be abondoned in due course. The same happened with the roadside horticulture scheme and the bamboo innovation scheme which was implemented with the help of ILO, Geneva, India Country Office. So, now being a retired person I can devote my entire life in continuation to implement such innovative schemes. Since, I could find Impact Guru only two days back, so I saw a ray of hope in going for such a venture at the fag end of my life. I am hopeful that if I get a positive response, I will be able to do some good work. I will then invite my old associates of the innovations to the Institute to augment the experiments. I am trying to upload some photos of the ultra poor, (Below Starvation Line) women taking formal training after the intervention of the innovative horticulture scheme. As also the third photo is of an animal pump which was innovated by me in 2002 as a source of non-conventional energy which could not be produced commercially as the government was giving 50% subsidy on it to farmers and I was asking for 90% subsidy for them being a product better than the solar pump. 


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